Each pan is hand forged from 11 gauge carbon steel. Most of the work is done with a hydraulic press and then finished with a hammer and anvil. Once the pan is finished the handle is forged and riveted to the pan. After wire brushing, I heat them in the oven at 500 degrees for an hour. This turns the pan a nice dark blue and creates surface oxidation that helps prevent rust. Over time as the pans are seasoned, they will continue to develop a warm, dark patina.